Starrels JL, Becker WC, Alford DP, et al.
Ann Intern Med. 2010 Jun 1;152(11):712-20.
BACKGROUND: Experts recommend opioid treatment agreements and urine drug testing to reduce opioid analgesia misuse, but evidence of their effectiveness has not been systematically reviewed. PURPOSE: To synthesize studies of the association of treatment agreements and urine drug testing with opioid misuse outcomes in outpatients with chronic noncancer pain. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials (January 1966 to June 2009), reference lists, and expert contacts. STUDY SELECTION: Original research addressing opioid medications, chronic pain, and treatment agreements or urine drug testing, with a sample size of 50 participants or more and published in English, Spanish, or French. DATA EXTRACTION: Two investigators independently identified eligible studies, extracted data, and assessed study quality.